With the Nords there probably really isn't any sort of census or anything like that.
But like others say, contribute to Nordic society and you probably are welcomed. Nords have hospitality, but take advantage of it and offer nothing in return at your own peril. I've always imagined that even a Nord native to Skyrim would be treated harshly if his reputation was a lazy layabout. If you're an outsider/foreigner and you take advantage of the hospitality and contribute nothing in return, you're probably treated far far worse, especially if you're from a country where you would be considered the enemy.
I do think each Hold probably has their eye on whose coming into their region as well. Even though - in the case of ESO - there's not much emphasis on Jarl and Hold loyalty (because let's face it, vanilla depictions of Skyrim are pretty shallow compared to TES V) - I'd say the Jarls and their stewards and the like *probably* try and keep an eye on who lives in their domain. Nothing crazy official like the Imperials, but they definitely would want to know whose paying taxes/contributing.